Population (Millions)



GDP (Billion)



GDP Growth

6.1 %







Country Context
& Overview

Ethiopia’s location gives it strategic dominance as a jumping off point in the Horn of Africa, close to the Middle East and its markets. Bordering Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan, and Sudan, Ethiopia is landlocked, and has been using neighboring Djibouti’s main port for the last two decades. However, with the recent peace with Eritrea, Ethiopia is set to resume accessing the Eritrean ports of Assab and Massawa for its international trade.

Ethiopia’s economy experienced strong, broad-based growth averaging 10.3% a year from 2006/07 to 2016/17, compared to a regional average of 5.4%. Ethiopia’s real gross domestic product (GDP) growth decelerated to 7.7% in 2017/18. Industry, mainly construction, and services accounted for most of the growth. Agriculture and manufacturing made lower contribution to growth in 207/18 compared to the previous year.  Private consumption and public investment explain demand-side growth, the latter assuming an increasingly important role.

Higher economic growth brought with it positive trends in poverty reduction in both urban and rural areas. The share of the population living below the national poverty line decreased from 30% in 2011 to 24% in 2016. The government is implementing the second phase of its Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II) which will run to 2019/20. GTP II aims to continue expanding physical infrastructure through public investments and to transform the country into a manufacturing hub. GTP II targets an average of 11% GDP growth annually, and in line with the manufacturing strategy, the industrial sector is set to expand by 20% on average, creating more jobs.

With about 105 million people (2017), Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Africa after Nigeria, and the fastest growing economy in the region. However, it is also one of the poorest, with a per capita income of $783. Ethiopia aims to reach lower-middle-income status by 2025.